Aflatoxin, a toxin from a naturally occurring mold, is a Group 1 carcinogen proven to cause cancer in humans. The United States federal government action level for aflatoxin in food for human consumption or in dairy cowfeed is 20 ppb. For milk for human consumption the level is 0.5 ppb. Levels up to 300 ppb are allowed in certain circumstances for nondairy animal feed. The European Union’s aflatoxin regulations for groundnuts, tree nuts, dried fruit, spices, and cereals include limits as low as 4 ppb total aflatoxins and 2 ppb for aflatoxin B1. Some EU member states have also separately established their own maximum limits on aflatoxins.